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It requires evidence-based, multifaceted solutions. Psychology can make important contributions to policies that prevent gun violence.

Toward this end, in February 2013 the American Psychological Association commissioned this report by a panel of experts to convey research-based conclusions and recommendations (and to identify gaps in such knowledge) on how to reduce the incidence of gun violence — whether by homicide, suicide, or mass shootings — nationwide.

This definition involves intentionality with the committing of the act itself, irrespective of the outcome it produces.

However, generally, anything that is excited in an injurious or damaging way may be described as violent even if not meant to be violence (by a person and against a person).

This initial categorization differentiates between violence a person inflicts upon himself or herself, violence inflicted by another individual or by a small group of individuals, and violence inflicted by larger groups such as states, organized political groups, militia groups and terrorist organizations.Following are chapter-by-chapter highlights and short summaries of conclusions and recommendations of the report’s authors.More information and supporting citations can be found within the chapters themselves.Smith and Hodges define ethics as a “human reflecting self-consciously on the act of being a moral being.This implies a process of self-reflection and awareness of how to behave as a moral being.